ENGLISH LANGUAGE TEACHING AS AN OBJECT OF SOCIAL INCLUSION
- 1. ABSTRACT
- 2. INTRODUCTION
- 3. CHAPTER ONE
- 4. CHAPTER TWO
- 5. CHAPTER THREE
- 5.1 Assessment and self-assessment
- 5.2 The use of first language in class
- 5.3 Language Skills in Context - reading, writing, speaking and listening
- 5.4 Contextualized Reading
- 5.5 Contextualized Writing
- 5.6 Contextualized Speaking
- 5.7 Contextualized Listening
- 6. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
- 7. REFERENCES
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This paper brings reflections about the possibility of a teaching and learning process of English language as a subject of social inclusion so that learning takes place in a significant way and based on studies and practices of some thinkers and experts from the fields of teaching and learning of English language and others field. Social inclusion in the field of teaching and learning of English language can be a way to ensure that people to access numerous information produced around the world, in a large and easy way, in order to they achieve their goals through the researches, inclusion in the labour market, entertainment, and other benefits that English language can bring to the individual that uses it.
Key words: English, language, social, inclusion, teaching, learning.
Speaking a second language in the globalized world today, corresponds to having access to lots of information, integration into the labor market, tourism, business, and in funny activities. The English language is the most used language in business and academic environments in many European countries. (BRASIL, 1998, p. 23)
The English language teaching and learning process plays a very important role for a person, since this teaching goes further than teaching contents, but allows citizens to have valuable experiences and expands the possibilities to act and participate in the world expressing their ideas, and opinions. (BRAZIL, MEC, 1998, p. 38).
This study does not intend to teach techniques, approaches or teaching and learning methods of English. The focus of this study is to try to bring the importance of the contextualization of English language teaching and learning process, according to some experiences from authors, thinkers’ studies, and Brazilian official documents.
We can understand that the teaching and learning process of a foreign language is associated with the understanding of people’s culture and the development of its citizens.
In her studies, Delgado (2004, p. 234) shows us the importance of giving the real value of culture to strengthening the individual thoughts so that their knowledge can be enriched.
This idea is also supported in Schlatter’s studies (2009 apud Garcez, 2008, p. 52), because enrichment of knowledge allows the
1 [...] formação do cidadão, um cidadão capaz de participar criticamente no mundo, apto ao trânsito nas sociedades complexas contemporâneas e preparado para o enfrentamento com a diversidade e o trânsito intercultural [...].
In other words, the English language teaching and learning process, can contribute to the inclusion of an individual in the world, and in their society through access to knowledge, cultures, and several possibilities of development.
3. CHAPTER ONE
This chapter focuses on the English language and its influence in a globalized and competitive world. It is also a brief story of how the English language has been taught according to Brazilian official documents in the practice of teaching and learning.
English language to Brazilians according to official documents
Speaking a foreign language, where the competitive labour market requires us to seize this expertise, is currently no longer a differentiator.
Being able to communicate in a second language in order to be inserted in various contexts of society is a basic prerequisite to perform numerous functions.
The English language has become a more accessible and comprehensive tool when it comes to global communication between different nations that establish any type of commercial or diplomatic relations.
The English language has been frequently used in the international scenario, whether at school, in trips, in marketing, at sports events, in the medical and scientific areas as well as in information technology.
In the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil in 1988, Article 205 regulates about the responsibility of the national education and states that:
2A educação, direito de todos e dever do Estado e da família será promovida e incentivada com a colaboração da sociedade visando ao pleno desenvolvimento da pessoa, seu preparo para o exercício da cidadania e sua qualificação para o trabalho. (CONSTITUIÇÃO art 205 – 1988).
In this sense, the nation's main document establishes that the state is responsible in promoting national education with the direct participation of the family and society.
Based on this determination guaranteed by the law, the main purpose of educating is not just to bring the theoretical knowledge to the Brazilian people, but also to educate the human person in dimensions that transcend the simple technique training, but also educate for life.
The cooperation between family, state and society in the educational process, leads us to understand the necessity to introduce humanistic aspects of conduct and respect the individuality of each person, therefore, education should be practiced in context with culture and everyday life.
The Brazilian National Constitution, in Article 206, states that:
3O ensino será ministrado com bases nos seguintes princípios: I - igualdade de condições para o acesso e permanência na escola, II - liberdade de aprender, ensinar, pesquisar e divulgar o pensamento, a arte e o saber, III - pluralismo de ideias e de concepções pedagógicas, e coexistencia de instituições públicas e privadas de ensino, IV - gratuidade de ensino público em estabelecimentos oficiais, V - valorização dos profissionais de ensino, garantidos, na forma da lei, plano de carreira para o magistério público de provas e títulos, VI - gestão democrática do ensino público na forma da lei, VII - garantia do padrão de qualidade. (CONSTITUIÇÃO art 206 – 1988)
The obligation of guaranteeing education with quality and respect to the whole society is not an optional service in Brazil, but it is legally assured by the law.
In the early twentieth century, the Ministry of Education was created, the organ that is the authority of the federal administration in the national education.
In its first decades of existence, since 1930, the Ministry of Education developed activities related to several other ministries, such as; health, sport, and also the environment. However, this ministry's main areas of competence issues were related to the national policy for education, early childhood education, youth and adult education, professional education, special education, higher education, distance education, educational research and teachers training.
From the time of its foundation until the 90s, the Ministry of Education has undergone various configurations and adjustments. In 1996, a new reform in Brazilian education was implemented
This new reform is marked by the creation of the National Education Guidelines and Framework. (Lei de Diretrizes e Bases da Educação). This law establishes guidelines aimed at regulating and organizing the educational practice throughout the country, changing previous laws and training professionals from basic education.
However, the National Education Guidelines and Framework, even though it is an important document content for education in Brazil, it has a vertical structure, which at times, limited significant advances in teaching and learning of the English language in Brazilian schools.
Regarding that Brazil is a multicultural country and has a country with continental dimensions, it is necessary to understand the demands, desires and necessities of each region.
Education and teaching processes tend to adapt to the cultural and socioeconomic context of each region.
In this sense, the National Education Guidelines and Framework were created. These parameters serve as a national reference suggesting goals and objectives for public education in Brazil, where states and municipalities base their curriculum proposals to be more contextualized in the local reality.
The National Education Guidelines and Framework play an important role for municipalities and Brazilian states once that in their proposals contains important subsidies for the development and implementation of a new curriculum, respecting the local reality and motivating the school to discuss its pedagogical practice.
Many schools in Brazil are adopting educational proposals in language teaching with the help and initiative of teachers in a communicative approach, however, the grammatical structure used does not relate to each context in many cases.
The objectives guided by the National Education Guidelines and Framework for foreign language teaching in schools stress the importance of integrating the individual in the world, following the globalization trends and providing knowledge of different cultures.
These objectives for foreign language teaching state that;
[...] vivenciar uma experiência de comunicação humana, pelo uso de uma língua estrangeira, no que se refere a novas maneiras de se expressar e de ver o mundo, refletindo sobre os costumes ou maneiras de agir e interagir e as visões de seu próprio mundo, possibilitando maior entendimento de um mundo plural e de seu próprio papel como cidadão de seu país e do mundo ( p. 67); Rev. Brasileira de Linguística Aplicada, v. 7, n. 1, 2007 175 [...]reconhecer que o aprendizado de uma ou mais línguas lhe possibilita o acesso a bens culturais da humanidade construídos em outras partes do mundo (p. 67); [...]identificar no universo que o cerca, as línguas estrangeiras que cooperam nos sistemas de comunicação, percebendo-se como parte integrante de um mundo plurilíngue e compreendendo o papel hegemônico que algumas línguas desempenham em determinado momento histórico (p. 66).
With the support of some thinkers of the teaching and learning of the English language area and according to the guiding of the National Education Guidelines and Framework, since 1998, efforts have been made for the English language traditional teaching in Brazil to be more comprehensive where interaction with the culture and the social context can be taken into account.4
Agreeing with the sociointeractionist proposal (VYGOTSKY, 1993), the author presents us a context in which learning is interspersed with the world and with the socio-cultural context, so we can insert the teaching of the English language in this scope where the contact with the language in real situations, be benchmark to the learning in a way that allows the student’s communication in closest situations to the authenticity of the facts.
The National Education Guidelines and Framework also show us the social role of foreign language, because speaking another language is an experience to be lived. It is to get to know other cultures, access a lot of information in numerous areas of expertise and interact with people and cultures around the world.
The teaching and learning process of a foreign language in Brazil according to the National Education Guidelines and Framework should be presented critically, promoting positive changes in the context of the people.
[...]a aprendizagem do inglês, tendo em vista o seu papel hegemônico nas trocas internacionais, desde que haja consciência crítica desse fato, pode colaborar na formulação de contra-discursos em relação às desigualdades entre países e entre grupos sociais (homens e mulheres, brancos e negros, falantes de línguas hegemônicas e não-hegemônicas etc.) Assim, os indivíduos passam de meros consumidores passivos de cultura e de conhecimento a criadores ativos: o uso de uma Língua Estrangeira é uma forma de agir no mundo para transformá-lo. A ausência dessa consciência crítica no processo de ensino e aprendizagem de inglês, no entanto, influi na manutenção do status quo ao invés de cooperar para sua transformação. (BRASIL 1998, p. 39-40)
Connected to the National Education Guidelines and Framework, the Brazilian regions can count on the Transversal Themes (BRAZIL, 1998). The Transversal themes complement the National Education Guidelines and Framework proposing an education for citizenship to adolescents and young of high school people.
The transversal themes address the socio-culture issues to be worked in the classroom into deeper discussion and debate about citizenship, democracy, perspectives and possibilities for building a democratic society.
The Transversal Themes help bring to the classroom notions of citizenship and expand the critical view of students to be recognized as citizens with rights and duties. The focus brought by The Transversal themes is directly connected to the necessity for social transformation through education, economic, political and cultural awareness.
Principles of human dignity, equal rights, participation and responsibility for social life, as well as topics such as ethics, cultural diversity, environment, health and sexuality are also contained in this document.
In high school, adolescents and young people can count on the new Curriculum Guidelines for high school for Foreign Language. The discussions brought by this proposal, 5 besides dealing with citizenship issues, also deepen discussions about the educational role of foreign languages in public schools, inclusion and exclusion. The proposal draws on the guidelines of the National Education Guidelines and Framework, recognizing the educational role of foreign language critically as a theoretical basis for social inclusion. For the authors of the document,
6 [...]a exclusão está implícita em concepções de língua e cultura como totalidades abstratas, fixas, estáveis e homogêneas” (p. 96); [...]o valor educacional da aprendizagem de uma língua estrangeira vai muito além de meramente capacitar o aprendiz a usar uma determinada língua estrangeira para fins comunicativos. (p. 86). (OCEM – LE – BRASIL, 2006 p. 86 - 96)
Working for social inclusion through foreign language teaching is one of the proposals in this document and even though countless factors contribute to exclusion, social inclusion can be made (OCEM-LE), "through foreign language teaching itself, given linguistic and instrumental goals.”
4. CHAPTER TWO
This chapter focuses on the English textbook and others tools that can help professionals from the teaching and learning English field to contextualize their pedagogical practice. Some thinkers refer the textbook like coursebook, but in this final paper, textbook is going to be the chosen nomenclature to it.
From the book to the internet
When we think about tools that can support the teaching and learning of the English language process, surely many people will point out the textbook as one of the first items.
Authors, academics and thinkers from various fields, discourse on the important role that the textbook has. However, there is no consensus on the definition of textbook.
CHOPPIN, (2004) highlights some aspects to help the conceptualization of the textbook, saying:
7A concepção de um livro didático inscreve-se em um ambiente pedagógico específico e em um contexto regulador que, juntamente com o desenvolvimento dos sistemas nacionais ou regionais é, na maioria das vezes, característico das produções escolares (edições estatais, procedimentos de aprovação prévia, liberdade de produção, etc.). Sua elaboração (documentação, escrita, paginação, etc.), realização do material (composição, impressão, encadernação, etc.), comercialização e distribuição supõem formas de financiamento vultuosos, quer sejam públicas ou privadas, e o recurso a técnicas e equipes de trabalho cada vez mais especializadas, portanto, cada vez mais numerosas. Por fim, sua adoção nas classes, seu modo de consumo, sua recepção, seus descartes são capazes de mobilizar, nas sociedades democráticas sobretudo, numerosos parceiros (professores, pais, sindicatos, associações, técnicos, bibliotecários, etc.) e de produzir debates e polêmicas (2004, p. 554).
CUNNINGSWORTH (1995) brings a note about the role textbook plays in the teaching and learning process. He says that "... the role of the coursebook is to be at the service of teachers and learners but not to be their master." (p.7)
From this observation, we can understand that the author emphasizes the important role that the textbook plays, but states that the book is not the main instrument that will guide teachers and students.
CUNNINGSWORTH (1995) suggests that there must be a relationship between the teacher and the textbook as the textbook should be seen as a manual that was contributes with the in student teaching and learning process and as a teacher's aid, but not in substitution.
In his studies, CUNNINGSWORTH (1995) says;
The relationship between teacher and coursebook is an important consideration and is at its the best when it is a partnership which shares commons goals to which each side brings its special contribution. The aims of the coursebook should correspond as closely as possible to the aims of the teacher, and both should seek to meet the needs of learners to the highest degree. (CUNNINGSWORTH, 1995, p.7)
4.1. The social context of the textbook
Two aspects to be taken into consideration in the textbook are its context and functionality.
For example; social, cultural and environmental issues should be observed for the student to feel attracted by the textbook. However, some criteria to enter the textbook in the social context have to be established, since people of different beliefs and realities will have access to it.
Ur (1996), in her studies, draws attention to this fact with a reflection that says:
Whether or not you elect to base your course on a coursebook, it is worth thinking about how you recognize a good one when you see it, and on what grounds you might reject or criticize it: in other words, what the main criteria are for coursebook assessment. (UR, 1996).
The criteria to be established, ranging from the profile of the students who will use the textbook, the region which will be inserted and also the dialogue that the book sets out have to be observed when adopting a textbook.
To CUNNINGSWORTH (1995), the textbook must meet criteria such as: the need of the student in relation to the objectives contained in the book, the easiness of the contents of the book, and its functionality, concerning students’ relationship with the target language and the relationship with the present and future.
Sometimes, the choice of a suitable textbook that is in accordance with local realities may be limited.
The current educational system, from the point of view of political bureaucracy and the manufacturing industry of books, can interfere with this movement.
However, the textbook should be looked at much further than a mere convenience. How can we understand in Freitag et al, 1997, (p 127), who says:
8[...] livro didático se insere em um contexto mais amplo, que perpassa o sistema educacional e envolve estruturas globais (...): o Estado, o mercado e a indústria cultural. (...) O livro didático não pode ser estudado de forma isolada, “em si”, mas pressupõe o mapeamento das estruturas de poder e econômicas da sociedade (...) para que compreendamos o seu funcionamento (FREITAG et al., 1997, p. 127).
Parallel to the textbook, other tools have been used as teaching tools that support English language teaching and learning. The researcher Choppin (2004) points out that;
9O livro didático não é, no entanto, o único instrumento que faz parte da educação da juventude: a coexistência (e utilização efetiva) no interior do universo escolar de instrumentos de ensino-aprendizagem que estabelecem com o livro relações de concorrência ou de complementaridade influi necessariamente em suas funções e usos. Estes outros materiais didáticos podem fazer parte do universo dos textos impressos (quadros ou mapas de parede, mapas-múndi, diários de férias, coleções de imagens, "livros de prêmio"— livros presenteados em cerimônias de final de ano aos alunos exemplares enciclopédias escolares...) ou são produzidos em outros suportes (audiovisuais, softwares didáticos, CD-Rom, internet, etc.). Eles podem, até mesmo, ser funcionalmente indissociáveis, assim como as fitas cassete e os vídeos, nos métodos de aprendizagem de línguas. O livro didático, em tais situações, não tem mais existência independente, mas torna-se um elemento constitutivo de um conjunto multimídia. (CHOPPIN, 2004).
In this sense, ALMEIDA (2005) highlights the use of technology in the school environment. This coordinated use enables student interaction with new knowledge.
10A utilização de tecnologias na escola e na sala de aula impulsiona a abertura desses espaços ao mundo e ao contexto, permite articular as situações global e local, sem, contudo, abandonar o universo de conhecimentos acumulados ao longo do desenvolvimento da humanidade. Tecnologias e conhecimentos integram-se para produzir novos conhecimentos que permitam compreender as problemáticas atuais e desenvolver projetos, em busca de alternativas para a transformação do cotidiano e a construção da cidadania. (ALMEIDA, 2005)
The audiovisual media bring contributions to the teaching and learning process.
In today's society, the contact with the interactivity and the mass communication and audio visual media, help motivate the students in the teaching and learning process
Studies (Almeida, 2005), are in consonance because the author ratifies saying;
11[...] integração entre imagens, movimentos e sons atrai e toma conta das gerações mais jovens, cuja comunicação resulta do encontro entre palavras, gestos e movimentos, distanciando-se do gênero do livro didático, da linearidade das atividades da sala de aula e da rotina escolar. Criar espaços para a identificação e o diálogo entre essas formas de linguagem e permitir que os alunos se expressem de diferentes maneiras são ações que favorecem o desenvolvimento da consciência crítica sobre a influência da mídia e respectivas estratégias direcionadas a determinados grupos sociais, num jogo complexo em que se encontram implícitos, sutilmente, os significados que se pretende impor a esse público. (ALMEIDA, 2005)
He goes on emphasizing that:
12A televisão e o vídeo são ótimos recursos para mobilizar os alunos em torno de problemáticas quando se intenta despertar-lhes o interesse para iniciar estudos sobre determinados temas ou trazer novas perspectivas para investigações em andamento. Assim, pode-se buscar temas que se articulam com os conceitos envolvidos nos projetos em desenvolvimento, selecionar o que for significativo para esses estudos, aprofundar a compreensão sobre estes, estabelecer articulações com informações provenientes de outras mídias, desenvolver representações diversas que entrelaçam forma e conteúdo nos significados que os alunos atribuem aos temas. (ALMEIDA, 2005)
Therefore, we can understand that the quest for dynamism in the teaching-learning engine that using technologies to attract young people to educational activities in the classroom is an important factor in society today.
Although it is understood that the technological mechanisms add value to the learning process, Almeida (2005) states that:
13Iserir-se na sociedade da informação não quer dizer apenas ter acesso à tecnologia de informação e comunicação -TIC, mas principalmente saber utilizar essa tecnologia para a busca e a seleção de informações que permita a cada pessoa resolver os problemas do cotidiano, compreender o mundo e atuar na transformação de seu contexto. Assim, o uso da TIC com vistas à criação de uma rede de conhecimentos favorece a democratização do acesso à informação, a troca de informações e experiências, a compreensão crítica da realidade e o desenvolvimento humano, social, cultural e educacional. Tudo isso poderá levar à criação de uma sociedade mais justa e igualitária. (ALMEIDA, 2005, p. 71)
The benefits of integration and the rational use and multimedia technologies bring new features, functionality and interaction to the practice of teaching and learning process. However, these advances do not replace the use of the textbook. Many textbooks can now be used more interactively on computers and other portable devices such as Smartphone, laptops, and tablets.
This feature enables an easy handling of the devices, the inclusion of new data, themes and content through a simple upgrade. In this way, teachers and students can set up activities in accordance with the contents to be studied.
Certainly, for this level of technology to be achieved, it is necessary that a series of investments in the national education be made, as well as an update of the entire educational system.
So far, books in a traditional format, as we know them today, will still be used for long.
Technology must come gradually and should come as a complement to the paper. The paper is still the universal media used by any student anywhere in Brazil, regardless of external conditions according to the National Education Development Fund (NEDF).
To this end, it is worth considering, according to Demo's (1993, p.89) idea what the only irreplaceable educational material is the teacher. The professional in teaching and learning process must be prepared to make their own teaching material. This teaching material might give the teacher necessary support for the development of their classes, and also the professional should be prepared to use effectively the physical structures and the school supplies available.
5. CHAPTER THREE
This chapter focuses on the contextualized assessment and language skills in the teaching and learning process. The goal of this chapter is not to teach professionals in English language how to do their practices, but only to reflect about its contextualization in this field.
Assessment and contextualized language skills
The English language teaching through playful activities involves a very important value in the student learning process.
The teaching and learning process that integrates relaxed and culturally contextualized activities make students feel more encouraged to learn the new language.
Thus, all content to be presented in the classroom should be organized in consonance with students’ reality, so that all this content can be meaningful and understood by them.
To go with the idea, Cavalcante (2004 p.55) says that:
14[...]. Para envolver a turma nas aulas de Língua Estrangeira, uma boa dose de diversão é bem-vinda: troca de correspondencia, jogos, músicas e filmes ensinam e entretêm [...]. É preciso tomar cuidado, no entanto, para não valorizar demais os recursos lúdicos e esquecer o objetivo principal: ensinar conteúdo. [...] (CAVALCANTE, p 55 – 2004).
Group activities that include all students requiring participation of all equally facilitate learning and interaction.
These playful activities proposed to students must be in agreement with the content to be learned, and it is important that everyone understands the objective.
Therefore, it is necessary that teachers consider what, how, and why or reuse a specific content through a certain fun activity.
According to Macedo (p. 15-2000),
15[...] é necessário conhecer características do desenvolvimento da criança, que possam interferir nas condições favoráveis, como média geral do tempo de concentração, grau de conhecimento do jogo e tema de maior interesse.
Em sintese, o profissional deve ter em mente a questão relativa ao Pra quem. (MACEDO, p 15 – 2000).
5.1. Assessment and self-assessment
Traditionally the importance of assessment is understood by teachers as a moment that will serve to test the student through evaluation instruments such as, final exams, oral and written tests. These evaluation tools should be well prepared and related to the contents taught in class so that teachers can have the feedback of their practice. However, another important evaluation tool to the student, from the point of view of democratization and social inclusion, is self-assessment.
In her studies, HOFFMANN (2001) notes that;
16[...]. Para o aluno autoavaliar-se é altamente favorável o desafio do professor, provocando-o a refletir sobre o que está fazendo, retomar passo a passo seus processos, tomar consciência das estratégias de pensamento utilizadas. Mas não é tarefa simples. Para tal, ele precisará ajustar suas perguntas e desafios às possibilidades de cada um, às etapas do processo em que se encontra, priorizando uns e outros aspéctos, decidindo sobre o quê, como e quando falar, refletindo sobre o seu papel frente à possível vunerabilidade do aprendiz. Neste sentido, o caráter intuitivo e ético do educador faz-se fortemente presente, porque ele precisará promover tal reflexão a partir do papel que lhe cumpre da forma de relacionamento que deseja estabelecer com seus alunos. [...] (HOFFMMAN, p 54 – 2001)
5.2. The use of first language in class
Some thinkers and researchers in the foreign language teaching area argue that foreign language classes must be taught directly in the target language to be effective. However, the idea that "small Amounts of first language use may indeed lead to more comprehensible input and target-language production" is defended by DAILEY-O 'CAIN, (2009, p. 5).
Omitting the first language of the teaching and learning process of a second language could limit students’ since they will not be able to make comparison between the two languages.
The first language use in the classroom should be done consciously, limited to a few activities and reduced gradually so that students can be less dependent on it.
The National Education Guidelines and Framework (BRAZIL, 1998a) to foreign languages propose the use of the first language because it is important for the construction of meanings. Since the end of elementary school, students need to be able to:
17[...] construir conhecimento sistêmico, sobre a organização textual e sobre como e quando utilizar a linguagem nas situações de comunicação, tendo como base os conhecimentos da lingua materna [...] (BRASIL, 1996a, p 67).
5.3. Language Skills in Context - reading, writing, speaking and listening
Foreign languages teaching in Brazil has been the subject of countless articles and scientific production over the last few years as seen above in this study.
Considering the teaching and learning process of the English language, studies focus on the development of linguistic skills.
5.4. Contextualized Reading
To teach the ability of reading in a second language, issues related to the students’ daily lives and current issues should be considered.
Reading strategies should be in consonance with the National Education Guidelines and Framework suggesting that pre-reading exercises are carried out in the classroom.
Thus, according to the guidelines of the National Curriculum Parameters (BRAZIL, 1998a), which suggest that the practice of reading be done in context, therefore, the contextualized reading brings meanings, enabling the student to interact with the global reality, because it is a social construction.
5.5. Contextualized Writing
The ability to write in a foreign language is an important tool for the students to express their ideas and their understanding of the world.
18[...] o produto de qualquer produção escrita será cada vez mais significativo quanto mais reflexivo tiver sido o processo do ato de escrever. O produto apresentará uma melhor qualidade se, durante o processo da redação, o autor perceber a escrita como um meio de explorar suas ideias [...]. (KOSIKOSKI, 2007, p. 31)
The most important in this process is that these productions are connected to several kinds of texts on websites, blogs, letters, and newspaper ads, therefore, these activities will make students’ productions relevant to their learning.
5.6. Contextualized Speaking
In the public school environment, the interaction of the student at the time of oral production in English does not always happen naturally.
Many factors limit the oral production in English in public school classrooms. These factors range from the high number of students in the same room, different levels of English already studied, and also age differences.
These factors can be minimized in accordance with Cavalcante’s (2004 – p. 55) proposals in hers studies.
According to Dias’ studies (2005 p. 66-67), speaking practice allows that the student produce orally the contents learned in the classroom, and also express their ideas in the target language, even with limitations, but naturally.
In this way, we can conclude that the student who starts an oral production process in the target language is more effective on speaking skill, even with a more basic grammatical structure.
5.7. Contextualized Listening
The ability of listening should be worked on in an easier manner in English classes.
In the globalized world, were artistic productions are mostly in English, access multimedia resources that could be used for teaching and learning process of English are countless.
According to Oliveira's Ideas (2004, p.32), teaching and learning techniques should include students objectively through contextualized activities. Thus, we can conclude that activities that involve listening contribute with the students’ development so that they speak the English language competently.
Saha and Talukdar in their studies (2008), express the idea that listening can be understood as a compound between "hearing and understanding". In this sense, teachers should consider that they have to guide students to develop their listening through meaningful activities considering the characteristics of the group.
6. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
Allow the individual inclusion in the social context through the teaching and learning process of English language is a hard challenge. But, on the other hand, it can help to construct a more fair society from the point of view of education, work, leisure, etc.
In this way, teachers and professionals of English language can play a fundamental and very important role in the socialization and in the access an unknown world for many people through by the contextualizing of their teaching practices.
A continuous effort should be made to training and educate citizens in a universal way and without factors that can limit this process.
The education of citizens can ensure a committed society compounded of critical and participatory individuals.
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1 [...] Formation of the citizen, able to participate critically in the world citizen, able to transiting in the complex societies and prepared for facing diversity and the intercultural transit [...]. (My translation)
2 Education, universal right and duty of the State and the family will be promoted and encouraged with the society cooperation in order to the full development of the person, their preparation for the exercise of citizenship and their qualification for work. (BRAZIL’S CONSTITUTION art 205-1988). (My translation)
3 Education shall be based on the following principles: I - equal conditions for access and permanence in school, II - freedom to learn, teach, research and express thought, art and knowledge, III - pluralism of ideas and pedagogical concepts and coexistence of public and private educational institutions, IV - public education gratuity in official establishments, V - appreciation of teaching professionals, guaranteed under the law, career plans for public school teachers of tests and titles, VI - democratic administration of public education as provided by law, VII - standard quality assurance. (CONSTITUTION art 206-1988). (My translation).
4 [...] Living human communication experience through the use of a foreign language, when it comes to new ways to express themselves and to see the world, reflecting on customs or ways of acting and interacting and visions of the individual’s own world, enabling greater understanding of a pluralistic world and their own role as a citizen of their country and the world (p. 67); Rev. Brazilian Applied Linguistics, vol. 7, no. 1, 2007 175 [...] recognizing that learning one or more languages allows access to cultural goods of humanity built in other parts of the world (p. 67); [...] identifying the universe that surrounds the individual, foreign languages cooperate in communication systems, make them perceive themselves as an integral part of a multilingual world and understanding the hegemonic role that languages play in some specific historical moment (p. 66) . (My translation).
5 [...] learning English in view of its hegemonic role in international trade, provided there are critical awareness of that fact, may help to counter speeches formulation regarding inequalities between countries and social groups (men and women, black and white, speakers of languages hegemonic and non-hegemonic etc.) Thus, individuals into mere passive consumers of culture and knowledge into active creators: the use of a foreign language is a way of acting in the world to turn it. The absence of this critical awareness in the teaching and learning of English, however, influences the status quo rather than cooperate in its transformation. (BRAZIL 1998, p. 39-40). (My translation).
6 [...] exclusion is implicit in conceptions of language and culture as abstract wholes, fixed, stable and homogeneous "(p 96.); [...] the educational value of learning a foreign language goes far beyond merely enabling the learner to use a particular foreign language for communicative purposes. (p. 86). (OCEM - LE - BRAZIL, 2006 p 86 -. 96). (My translation).
7 The conception of a textbook subscribe to a specific educational environment and in a regulatory context that along with the national or regional development systems is mostly characteristic of school productions (state issues, prior approval procedures, freedom of production, etc.). Its preparation (documentation, writing, paging, etc.), development of the material (composition, printing, binding, etc.), marketing and distribution assume any significance forms of financing, whether public or private, and the use of techniques and team increasingly specialized labor, thus becoming more numerous. Finally, its adoption in classes, its way of consumption, its reception, its disposal are able to mobilize in democratic societies especially numerous partners (teachers, parents, unions, associations, technicians, librarians, etc.) and produce debates and polemics (2004, p. 554). (My translation)
8 [...] Textbook is part of a large context that permeates the educational system and involves global structures (...) the State, the market and the culture industry. (...) The textbook cannot be studied in isolation, "in itself", but assumes the mapping of structures of power and economic society (...) to understand its operation (Freitag et al. 1997, p. 127). (My translation)
9 The textbook is not, however, the only instrument that is part of youth education: the coexistence (and effective use) within the school environment for teaching and learning tools that establish with the book relations of competition or complementary influences necessarily in its functions and uses. These other learning materials can be part of the universe of printed texts (tables or wall maps, world maps, daily vacation, image collections, "award books" - books presented at year-end ceremonies to students copies school encyclopedias ...) or are produced in other media (audiovisual, educational software, CD-Rom, Internet, etc.). They can even be functionally inseparable, like cassette tapes and videos in language learning methods. The textbook, in such situations, no more independent existence, but it becomes a constitutive element of a multimedia set. (Choppin, 2004). (My translation)
10 The use of technology in school and in the classroom promotes the opening of these spaces to the world and the context, allows articulating global and local situations without, however, leaving the universe of knowledge accumulated over the development of humanity. Integrate technology and knowledge to produce new knowledge to understand current issues and develop projects, searching for alternatives to the transformation of everyday life and the construction of citizenship. (ALMEIDA, 2005). (My translation)
11 [...] Integration of images, movements and sounds attracts and takes care of the younger generations, the disclosure of which results from the meeting between words, gestures and movements, distancing themselves from the textbook genre, the linearity of classroom activities and school routine. Create spaces for identifying and dialogue between these forms of language and allow students to express themselves in different ways are actions that favor the development of critical awareness of the influence of the media and their strategies targeted to specific social groups, in a complex game that are implied, subtly, the meanings intended to require the public. (ALMEIDA, 2005). (My translation)
12 Television and video are great resources for mobilizing students around problematic when attempting to arouse their interest to initiate studies on specific issues or bring new perspectives to ongoing investigations. So, you can get issues that are linked with the concepts involved in development projects, selecting what is significant for these studies, deepen the understanding of these, establish links with from other media information, and develop various representations that intertwine form and content in the meanings that students attribute to the themes. (ALMEIDA, 2005). (My translation)
13 Be part of the information society does not mean just having access to information technology and communication -TIC, but mostly able to use this technology to the search and selection of information that allows each person to solve everyday problems, understand the world and act in transforming its context. Thus, the use of ICT with a view to creating a network of knowledge favors the democratization of access to information and the exchange of information and experience, a critical understanding of reality and the human, social, cultural and educational. All this could lead to the creation of a more just and egalitarian society. (ALMEIDA, 2005, p. 71). (My translation)
14 [...]. To engage the class in foreign language classes, a good dose of fun is welcome: exchange of correspondence, games, music and movies teach and entertain [...]. Care must be taken, however, not to over value the recreational resources and forget the main objective: to teach content. [...] (CAVALCANTE, p 55-2004). (My translation)
15 [...] It is necessary to know the child's developmental characteristics that might interfere with favorable conditions, as a general average time of concentration, degree of knowledge of the game and theme of interest. In summary, the professional should keep in mind the question on the For whom. (MACEDO, p 15-2000). (My translation)
16 [...]. To the student, self-assessment is highly favorable teacher's challenge, causing them to reflect on what you are doing, step by step resume their processes, become aware of the thinking strategies used. But it is no simple task. To do this, their will need to adjust your questions and challenges to the possibilities of each one, the process steps in which you are prioritizing some and others, deciding on what, how and when to speak, reflecting on their role in the possible vulnerability as well apprentice. In this sense, the intuitive and ethical character of the educator is strongly present because it needs to promote such reflection from the role to be you the type of relationship you want to establish with their students. [...] (HOFFMMAN, p 54 - 2001). (My translation)
17 [...] Build systemic knowledge on the textual organization and how and when to use the language in communication situations, based on the knowledge of the mother tongue [...] (BRAZIL, 1996a, p 67). (My translation)
18 [...] The product of any written production will become increasingly significant as more reflexive has been the process of writing. The product will have a better quality if, during the drafting process, the author perceive writing as a means to explore their ideas [...]. (KOSIKOSKI, 2007, p. 31). (My translation)
Publicado por: Lázaro Evangelista
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